Friday, May 4, 2012

List of dog diseases No3

Animal Infections Rabies (hydrophobia) is a fatal viral disease that can affect any mammal, although the close relationship of dogs with humans makes canine rabies a zoonotic concern.

Vaccination of dogs for rabies is commonly required by law.

5. Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1).

CAV-1 also causes disease in wolves, coyotes, and bears, and encephalitis in foxes. The virus is spread in the feces, urine, blood, saliva, and nasal discharge of infected dogs.

It is contracted through the mouth or nose, where it replicates in the tonsils. The virus then infects the liver and kidneys. The incubation period is 4 to 7 days.

Symptoms include fever, depression, loss of appetite, coughing, and a tender abdomen. Corneal edema and signs of liver disease, such as jaundice, vomiting, and hepatic encephalopathy, may also occur. Severe cases will develop bleeding disorders, which can cause hematomas to form in the mouth.

Death can occur secondary to this or the liver disease. However, most dogs recover after a brief illness, although chronic corneal edema and kidney lesions may persist.

Diagnosis is made by recognizing the combination of symptoms and abnormal blood tests that occur in infectious canine hepatitis.

A rising antibody titer to CAV-1 is also seen. The disease can be confused with canine parvovirus because both will cause a low white blood cell count and bloody diarrhea in young, unvaccinated dogs.
Treatment is for the symptoms.

Most dogs recover spontaneously without treatment. Prevention is through vaccination (ATCvet code QI07AA05 and various combination vaccines). Most combination vaccines for dogs contain a modified canine adenovirus type-2.

CAV-2 is one of the causes of respiratory infections in dogs, but it is similar enough to CAV-1 that vaccine for one creates immunity for both. CAV-2 vaccine is much less likely to cause side effects than CAV-1 vaccine.

One study has shown the vaccine to have a duration of immunity of at least four years.
CAV-1 is destroyed in the environment by steam cleaning and quaternary ammonium compounds. Otherwise, the virus can survive in the environment for months in the right conditions.

It can also be released in the urine of a recovered dog for up to a year.
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6. Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a virus of the family Herpesviridae which most importantly causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in puppies (and in wild Canidae) less than two to three weeks old.

It is known to exist in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, England and Germany. CHV was first recognized in the mid 1960s from a fatal disease in puppies.

Diagnosis of the disease in puppies is best accomplished by necropsy. Findings include hemorrhages in the kidneys, liver, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

Treatment of affected puppies is difficult, although injecting antibodies to CHV into the abdomen may help some to survive. Keeping the puppies warm is also important.

The virus does not survive well outside of the body and is easily destroyed by most detergents. A vaccine in Europe known as Eurican Herpes 205 (ATCvet code: QI07AA06) has been available since 2003.

It is given to the dam (mother) twice: during heat or early pregnancy and one to two weeks before whelping.
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7. Pseudorabies is a viral disease in swine that is endemic in most parts of the world.

It is caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), which is also called Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and is also known as Aujeszky's disease, and in cattle as mad itch. PRV is considered to be the most economically important viral disease of swine in areas where hog cholera has been eradicated.

Other domestic and wild mammals, such as cattle, sheep, goats, cats, dogs, and raccoons, are also susceptible. The disease is usually fatal in these hosts.

Research on PRV in pigs has pioneered animal disease control with genetically modified vaccines. PRV is now extensively studied as a model for basic processes during lytic herpesvirus infection, and for unravelling molecular mechanisms of herpesvirus neurotropism.

Although the word "pseudorabies" means "false rabies," or "rabies-like," it is a misnomer. Pseudorabies is related to the herpes virus, not the rabies virus.

Swine are usually asymptomatic, but PRV can cause abortion, high mortality in piglets, and coughing, sneezing, fever, constipation, depression, seizures, ataxia, circling, and excess salivation in piglets and mature pigs.

Mortality in piglets less than one month of age is close to 100 percent, but it is less than 10 percent in pigs between one and six months of age. Pregnant swine can reabsorb their litters; deliver mummified, stillborn, or weakened piglets.

 In cattle, symptoms include intense itching followed by neurological signs and death. In dogs, symptoms include intense itching, jaw and pharyngeal paralysis, howling, and death. In cats, the disease is so rapidly fatal that there are usually no symptoms.

Any infected secondary host generally only lives two to three days.
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8. Canine minute virus is a type of virus of the family Parvoviridae that infects dogs.

It is most similar to bovine parvovirus in its protein structure and DNA. A virus causing respiratory disease in humans has been called human bocavirus due to its similarity to both these viruses (bovine canine virus).

Canine minute virus was originally discovered in Germany in 1967 in military dogs, although it was originally thought to not cause disease. Dogs and puppies are infected orally, and the virus is spread transplacentally to the fetuses.

Symptoms are seen most commonly between the ages of one to three weeks and include severe diarrhea, difficulty breathing, and anorexia. In severe cases it is fatal.

In experimental infections, the virus is spread transplacentally when the dam is infected between 25 and 30 days of gestation and can result in abortion.

When the dam is infected between 30 and 35 days, the puppies were sometimes born with myocarditis and anasarca.

Pathological lesions in fetuses in experimental infections were found in the lung and small intestine.
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